Read and Download Kalman Dubov book Journeys to the Commonwealth of Australia in PDF, EPub, Mobi, Kindle online. Free book TJourneys to the Commonwealth of Australia. This book was released on 2021-11-24 with total page pages. Book excerpt: The continent of Australia has an ancient and modern history. Aborigines arrived at this continent an estimated 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, living a hunter-gatherer existence while developing unique ways to live and thrive on this land. That idyllic life ended in 1770 when the great British explorer James Cook discovered the continent. Just eighteen years later, in 1788, the First Fleet of convict ships from England established a colony at Botany Bay, near today's city of Sydney. The settlement grew and developed, while additional convict ships and settlers came to this continent to make a new home and life for themselves. As the number of settlers increased, there was a corresponding series of attacks on the Aborigines. Massacres took many lives, while European diseases for which the Aborigines had no immunity, decimated these ancient communities. I review this tragic interaction between these two diverse cultures which continues today. I also explore the Stolen Generation, the racist and genocidal policy of forcibly removing Aboriginal children from their parents and community, then giving these children to white parents to be raised in an atmosphere intolerant to the Aboriginal culture and history. An estimated 100,000 children were taken in this manner, remembered nationally and annually as Sorry Day. In addition, an estimated 500,000 white children were taken from parents and given to others. While forcibly negating and outlawing native cultures has taken place in many countries, where dominant values are identified as superior to the older and subjugated culture, the forcible removal of hundreds of thousands of white children from parents reflects a policy that begs to be examined in depth. I also review the establishment of a Royal Commission that examined sexual predatory attacks on children, both in the Roman Catholic Church, by diocesan and order priests (brothers) while these children were wards of these religious institutions by order of the federal government. I also explore the percentages of prelates who acted in this criminal manner. This issue has been faced in several other countries, with resulting questions regarding the role Catholic priests and their bishops have in teaching religious values while protecting their charges from sexual abuse. The Jewish community too has been charged in this scourge. Two religious schools in Melbourne were charged with knowledge of such attacks taking place in these schools but the rabbinic leadership neither reported the abuse to civil authorities nor made efforts to stop it. In this regard, I explore the Jewish law inhibiting such reporting to secular authorities. In fact, the historic and traditional Jewish community standard prefers to protect the predator and not protect the victimized child. This standard is gradually changing as progressive awareness is made into the corrosive atmosphere surrounding a victimized child and the enormous psychological and emotional costs endured by the child for the remainder of his or her life. The theme of sexual abuse is also present with regard to Malka Leifer. This woman was charged with over seventy counts of criminal behavior while having a senior administrative and teaching role in a leading ultra-Orthodox religious school for girls. She became a cause célèbre with international intrigue between Australia and Israel when she escaped Australian shores for refuge in Israel. Years of legal wrangling ensued, by many Israeli courts, including the Supreme Court, each examining the increasing furor if this woman should be extradited to face criminal charges in Australia. Malka Leifer was only recently returned to Australia, now finally awaiting has moment of facing her accusers in open court. This volume also reviews and analyzes each war Australians fought in, from the Second Boer War, First World War, Second World War, Korean and Vietnam Wars, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. These conflicts culminated with the ANZUS Treaty, with a military cooperation agreement between the United States, Australia and New Zealand. The United States identified New Zealand as standing against the West when it promulgated its anti-nuclear zone. New Zealand identified with smaller Pacific island nations that condemned nuclear testing on remote Pacific islands and the resulting fallout with consequent health issues they face because of such testing. I was on the Holland American Grand Voyage while visiting Australian ports. I review the different Australian ports the Amsterdam came to, such as Darwin, Brisbane, and Sydney. I review each of these cities, both as the country developed and modernly, with these cities taking on more developed economic power.